Understanding the Interaction Between Pressure, Volume and Temperature in the Use of Industrial Pneumatic Tools

Industrial Tools

Whether you are using a pneumatic nail gun, a jackhammer or any other pneumatic tool, the compressed air that powers the tools is a by-product of pressure, volume and temperature. The relationship between these forces and how they can be harnessed to create powerful tools has its roots in scientific discoveries that are hundreds of years old.

            When you are on an industrial site, the last thing you have running through your mind is the scientific foundation upon which your tools were developed and which makes your job so much easier, but it is worth understanding how the science, coupled with human ingenuity, helped bring pneumatic tools to life.

What is Compressed Air?

            According to Wikipedia: Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure. Compressed air is an important medium for the transfer of energy in industrial processes and is used for power tools such as air hammers, drills, wrenches, and others, as well as to atomize paint, operate air cylinders for automation, and can also be used to propel vehicles. Brakes applied by compressed air made large railway trains safer and more efficient to operate.

            According to Shaun from Principal Power Tools “Compressed air is what powers the tools, the brakes and the processes that make modern living so comfortable. But how does air get to be compressed in the first place?”

Understanding the Relationships Between Pressure, Volume and Temperature

            For the air that is naturally available in the atmosphere to become usable for a purpose other than breathing, it must be compressed. As the number of air molecules naturally spread apart and take up more volume, scientists first had to understand how the pressure of a gas (air) was dependent upon the volume it occupied and the temperature of said gas. There are two laws that illuminate this.

What is Boyle’s Law

            Boyle’s Law, which was initially developed as an ideal gas law, states that the pressure of air increases if it is forced into a smaller space. Otherwise put, pressure multiplied by volume equals a constant (PV=k) and if air volume is decreased (like when you use your pneumatic tools), pressure must be increased to reach the same constant.

What is Charles’ Law

            Charles’ Law, which was developed by Joseph Louis Gay Lussac, (V/T=k) states that the volume of a gas divided by the temperature will give you your pressure, which is the constant. Using this law, if you increase the temperature, the volume will inevitably increase to give you a constant pressure. Ever notice how a compressor sometimes will have frost on it when it is in use? This is a physical representation of Charles’ Law.Both of these laws are combined to understand the compression of air.

            Compressed air is a gas at a constant temperature when it is in a compressor. When you increase the pressure of a gas, the relationship between the pressure and the volume the air occupies changes. When air is compressed in this way, the temperature and pressure increase and the volume of the space decreases as more air molecules are pressurized into the compressor, which has a smaller volume than where the air was previously: outside.

            Using these tools releases the volume of air through a point at the end of a gun or another tool and as the temperature and volume change, pressure is increased to maintain a desired constant of air pressure.

How Does Pressure, Volume and Temperature Relate to Industrial Pneumatic Tools?

            The science behind the relationship between pressure and volumes is important for a number of reasons. High temperatures make it difficult for pneumatic tools to work properly. Also, if you are having issues with pressure equalizing or if you need to trouble-shoot problems, knowing how these systems work will help in that process, which can be invaluable out on an industrial site.

Top Tools and Techniques Used in Stainless Steel Fabrication

Stainless Steel Fabrication

The fabrication of stainless steel has come a long way since the first time this type of steel was alloyed years ago. Stainless steel is used in almost every industry and is a critical material, used in everything from surgical equipment to large boilers in refineries worldwide.

But how does stainless steel go from combining different metals to a finished product? What are the top tools and techniques used in the fabrication processes of stainless steel and what does machining stainless steel entail Ryan from The Green Gate Group said “The steel fabrication process can be complex and challenging work but there are skilled workers and companies that get the job done, providing high-quality stainless-steel products and services for those that need them.”

Techniques Used in Stainless Steel Fabrication

  • Work Hardening

Work hardening is the process of strengthening stainless steel by deforming it purposely with benders, as well as by twisting and rolling it. Work hardening also gives stainless steel high levels of corrosion resistance, making it the perfect material for exterior and finish applications. Austenitic grades of stainless steel will be hardened this way whereas other types of stainless steel can be hardened using temperature treatments.

  • Machining

Machining is an umbrella term that defines all types of processes that help to shape, mold, and otherwise change stainless steel from its raw form to a finished product. This typically includes the use of cutting and shaping tools and uses lubricants to ensure that the cutting edges and drill bits can do their work effectively.

  • Welding

Welders use electrical current to join multiple pieces of steel together, creating new products and unleashing the potential of stainless steel. Higher carbon steels are known to be much more difficult to weld, creating welding challenges for those working with those types of steel.

  • Laser Cutting

High-powered lasers are used to cut stainless steel when necessary, giving steel workers an incredible level of precision when making steel products.

  • Metal Punching

A simple process in which a high-powered steel punch produces unfirm holes in stainless steel sheets.

  • Metal Stamping

The stamping process of stainless steel is fascinating as it uses a die and either hydraulic or mechanical pressure to form sheets of stainless steel into high-precision parts.

Tools Used in Stainless Steel Fabrication

  • Welders

Whether it is an arc welder or a MIG welder, there would be no steel fabrication if it wasn’t for welders. There are several different types of welders ranging from small, transportable units to large, industrial-grade set-ups.

  • Gas Torches

You need to be able to cut that steel somehow and if you don’t have a large steel stamp or a high-powered laser to do it for you, a gas torch is a way to do it. Gas torches provide a portable and powerful tool that can cut through steel quickly and effectively.

  • Grinders

Welding and grinding go together like a hand and a glove. Grinders and grinding disks are essential tools for stainless steel workers in everything from pre-production to the finishing stages of steel production.

  • Drills

To properly create and fabricate stainless steel products, workers use drills of all shapes and sizes to bore holes through steel sheets and steel parts.

  • Cranes

The crane is an invaluable aid when working with stainless steel because a lot of the work is done on large steel pieces which need to be moved with the help of a crane.

Benefits of aluminium windows – you must know them!

Benefits of aluminium windows

The image of a house or flat without windows can give you a distasteful and shuddering feeling. It is hard to imagine our house without at least one window through which we can look at the world around us. When choosing windows, we are guided primarily by their durability, thanks to which they will serve us for years. Well-made windows also include aesthetically made frames, which beautify our interior and are capable of keeping the heat in the flat or house.

Aluminium windows are becoming increasingly popular, although not yet as much as PVC or wooden windows. Due to their distinctive appearance, their installation places are usually public buildings, such as schools, offices or shopping centres. However, the simplicity and elegance of aluminium windows have led to their increasing use in the construction of houses and flats.

Benefits of aluminium windows

Aluminium windows are first and foremost lightweight and extremely strong compared to the well-known PVC windows. Despite the widely known negative opinion, they are not inferior to wooden ones in terms of energy efficiency either. Aluminium is a material that can be formed into any imaginable shape when exposed to heat. This advantage makes it possible to create windows in many forms, even those which have not been seen before. The free design of the windows also means that the width of their frame can be adjusted by narrowing or widening it – the narrower the frame, the larger the windows appear. Aluminium windows are resistant to corrosion thanks to appropriate protection. The use of the latest thermal insulation technology in the production of aluminium windows means that they retain heat inside the room very well. In addition, they are very easy to clean and do not require regular maintenance, while the metal components, in most cases, are fully recyclable.

Benefits of aluminium windows – summary

Aluminium windows, like everything, also have a few disadvantages. The biggest of these is the frame, which, although perfectly capable of retaining heat in a room, is quite cold to the touch. Aluminium windows are also difficult to repair in any way. Aluminium windows are very sturdy and hard to damage. However, if there happen to be any scuffs, scratches or cracks, we will have to replace the entire frame. Despite this, aluminium windows have more advantages than disadvantages. The one that is most appealing to the decision of installing such windows is usually the excellent thermal insulation capability, which will keep the house or flat warm. The decision to purchase aluminium windows should preferably be made with the help of a specialist, who will take into account all the most important issues and dispel any doubts about aluminium windows.

Sandwich panels – key features, application, manufacture

Sandwich Panels Key Features

The growing popularity of sandwich panels is primarily due to the favorable technical parameters of this material, as well as the attractive price. Although it is a relatively new product, we can already see it in many buildings, both private and public.

Table of Contents:

  • What are sandwich panels?
  • Stages of material production
  • Key features and benefits of the product
  • Where are panelboards used?

Double-layer board – what is it?

Sandwich panels, also available as “panel boards” are a composite building material used to enclose walls and roofs and form the body of a building. We distinguish between wall and roof sandwich panels. Regardless of the type, they consist of the same elements: steel, profiled sheets in the outer layers and an inner insulating layer, also called filler or core.

How is this material created?

The process of creating sandwich panels consists of several very important steps and is an iterative process, no matter what type of material we are dealing with. It is carried out in an automated manner.

First, a sheet is prepared – with the shape and parameters derived from the technical documentation. It is the one that forms the outer layer of each sandwich board and is a typically structural element. This is followed by the core of the material, or insulation layer. Various materials are used for this purpose, but the most common are mineral wool, polyurethane foam or polystyrene foam. State-of-the-art products, including Kingspan sandwich panels, feature innovative cores with increased values for particular parameters. The next step is to connect the sheet metal to the insulation core. This stage takes place on the production line. It is based on the phenomenon of adhesion, or the ability of materials to bond with each other.

However, before the sandwich panel is transported, it undergoes quality control. Among other things, specialists check whether its thickness and shape agree with the technical recommendations for the product. The slab is also sent for so-called seasoning – a break during which it acquires the right temperature. For delivery, the material is properly secured.

What are the characteristics of panelboards?

Wall and roof sandwich panels have many features that are appreciated by every construction investor. They are primarily a highly thermally insulating material. Thus, they prevent heat from escaping from the building and contribute to creating the desired thermal comfort inside the house (or another type of building). They also offer favorable sound insulation. This feature is important, especially in construction projects taking place in close proximity to traffic arteries or in the creation of industrial buildings. In addition, the material shows high resistance to mechanical and even fire damage. It is lightweight and handy, making installation faster, and available in a variety of aesthetic and size options. Also in favor is the relatively low cost of purchasing such a product.

Sandwich boards – application

Due to the aforementioned features, sandwich panels are used in the construction industry in the broadest sense of the term, and co-create, among others: production halls and warehouses, office and commercial buildings, public buildings, cold stores and freezers, logistics centers, various types of workshops, as well as buildings on farms.

Sandwich panels – characteristics, application, production

Sandwich panels

More and more is being said about sandwich panels. This is because it is a material that is easy to install, offers a range of favorable technical properties and is available in many aesthetic variations. All this makes it a material suitable for diverse and sustainable construction.

Table of Contents:

  • Sandwich panels – what are they?
  • What is the process of manufacturing sandwich panels?
  • The most important properties and characteristics of the material
  • Application, that is, where can insulated panels be used?

Definition of sandwich panels

sandwich panel is a building material that, as the name implies, consists of two layers: sheet metal on the two, outer sides and an insulating core in the center. You can also find it under the name “panel boards”.

Depending on whether we are dealing with wall or roof sandwich panels, the product is used to enclose walls or roofs and thus create a building block. As it is an extremely aesthetic material, it is also responsible for giving the building an attractive, neat and modern appearance. In turn, its insulating properties allow investors to create buildings with the desired thermal and acoustic comfort.

What does production look like?

Whether a wall or roof panel is being created, production looks very similar and consists of the same key steps.

  • Creating sheet metal
  • – properly shaped, durable and with planned aesthetics. It is she who gives the entire board a certain structure and solidity.
  • The formation of an insulating core –
  • the peculiar heart of any double-layer board. This layer is formed from a variety of materials, but mineral wool, polyurethane foam and polystyrene foam lead the way, as materials with the most favorable thermal insulation parameters.
  • Combining the outer layer with the inner layer –
  • that is, sheet metal with an insulating core. This uses the phenomenon of adhesion, which is the ability of materials to bond with each other.
  • Quality control and so-called seasoning
  • – a very important stage, during which sandwich panels are checked for compliance with technical documentation and “rest”, acquiring the right temperature.

* It is worth knowing that state-of-the-art insulated panels use different and improved cores. This is the case, for example, at Kingspan, a leader in the production and sale of this material. In addition to standard PIR cores, the manufacturer’s IPN uses the innovative QuadCore™.

Key advantages of the material

Insulated panels are a material with many advantages. It is characterized by light weight, yet high mechanical and fire resistance . It is distinguished by its low thermal conductivity coefficient (this indicates its excellent thermal insulation properties) and is available in a variety of aesthetics and many sizes. In addition, it offers good sound insulation – this is appreciated, for example, by investors planning to create a building in close proximity to streets. In contrast, in the context of sustainable construction, close to Kingspan’s policy, sandwich panels are made with great care for the environment.

Double-layer boards – where are they used?

Having learned the main advantages of the material, it is not surprising that it is used in the construction industry in the broadest sense of the term and co-creates, among others: production halls and warehouses, office and commercial buildings, public buildings, cold stores and freezers, logistics centers, various types of workshops, as well as buildings on farms.